Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Differentiating Between Market Structures Essay Example for Free

Differentiating Between Market Structures Essay There are many TV service providers available in the U. S; however there are only two companies that offer services via satellite. Dish operates within the monopolistic competition market. Dish has been in business since the early 1980’s and has gradually worked its way up to become one of the leading satellite provider and innovator of new technology. In 2013 they offer service to over 14 million subscribers nationwide. This market in which it competes is where all firms have some market power, which controls the market price. They produce the same product as Direct TV and no other provider is in the same market. They know all competitor prices and services in order to be able to compare services and offer the best value to potential customers. Within the market structure buyers/consumers have the ability to know the prices of both companies so that they can decide which one will be better for them. In this market customers have the ability to leave the service at any point in time. They can choose to cancel services if they are not content with the quality of the product, some may leave with no penalty while others may have to pay a penalty for the cancelation. Dish is a leader in the TV industry when it comes to equipment, programming and pricing,. They have to maintain a level of competitiveness in order to compete with other providers. Dish like any other company, is looking to maximize profit and will provide service that is appealing to the customer in order to increase customer base in turn increasing profit. Differentiating Between Market Structures In the pay TV industry, Dish has managed to out rank Direct TV in many areas such as customer service, equipment technology and pricing for programming. Dish is a company that offers promotions to all buyers/consumers in order to make the sign up more enticing. The market structure in which Dish operates would be the monopolistic competition. Within the TV industry that Dish operates there is only one other company that is included, Direct TV. These two companies offer similar products and customers can choose whom they do service with. It is ideal for Dish to compete in this market because there are only two companies within the same industry. This market structure is suitable for Dish because it provides more opportunity to maximize profit due to the competition. Dish has more availability to customers and the opportunity to be able to increase customer rate in turn increasing the profit due to the fact that there are only two service providers. It cannot be in a monopoly market because there is another company that provides the same service or product. It also does not have extremely high prices or excessive barriers to obtain services. They always provide affordable prices that will also benefit the company to increase profit. (Monopolistic Competition, 2013). Dish has many promotions that are being offered to obtain new customers and also retain the existing consumers. The company offers upfront discounts as a sign up bonus to gain the attention of those prospective consumers. It offers up to $30 credits up front on the programming for the first twelve months of service. With a qualifying promotion the customer will have the activation and the equipment fees waived saving the consumer over $200. When existing customers look for any type of promotion they will have anything from discounts for a few months up to free programming. Even if the customers receive free programming Dish will still be making a profit because of all the other programming, equipment and services they provide. A company is making profit with any service it provides because it continues to sell its service because it continues to sell its services to consumers. The strategies for Dish to obtain new customers are a good way for the company to increase profit and obtain new customer base. Even though the company is making a profit off all the services they provide there are some changes to the promotions. For example, on the promotions that are offered to new customers I would recommend that they make the qualification process a little easier. They could reduce the credit score criteria and make it less of a hassle to qualify for Dish. There are some promotions for those customers that do not qualify for the highest promotion but the fees are much higher. They must pay for the activation fee plus the equipment fees. This can get expensive depending on the equipment the customer chooses. With the qualification being so strict many potential customers will be swayed to not obtain services. With the upfront discounts there should be on extension in the time they are offered but reducing the amount being given. For some of the customers that qualify may receive a credit up to $30 other may get credits ranging from $10 to $25 for the first twelve months of service. If the company reduces the amount given to customers and extends the time allowed for the credit more customers would be content and more likely continue with Dish service. ( Dish Network L. l. c. , 2013). There are customers that leave the service due to the credits ending and seeing an increase in the statements. Some of the consumers do not take into consideration any penalty for early termination. Customers will keep looking for the best deal that they can possibly obtain. If we provide more options on the discounts Dish would be able to retain more customers in turn increasing customer base. Another recommendation that would be made to Dish would be that they make upgrade on equipment more feasible and less expensive for consumers. For those customers that want different equipment than the one that was installed. In some cases there would be a fee to upgrade the equipment the customer is deciding to obtain. The fees can range anywhere between $0 up to $300 with a twenty four month commitment. Of those customers some may find the fees excessive and will decide to keep what they have or go with a different provider. This is preventing Dish from obtaining more revenue and increasing profit. For every company the main focus is to maximize profit. They have many different options in order to do so. Dish operates in a monopolistic competition market where there are only two companies that offer similar services. In this market Dish offers many promotions for potential customers as well as existing customers. The consumers are allowed to leave services at any point during the service period. Some may leave with no penalty and other with a penalty due to breaking a commitment. Dish, even with all the discounts, manages to still increase profit because of all the other services that Dish offers. They make money off of programming, equipment, internet services, online service, and phone service and with the company blockbuster that was recently purchased by dish. With Dish and Direct TV in the same market and no other satellite competitor they are allowed to place their own market power when it comes to price. They compete with each other for all potential consumers as well as existing customers. Each company wants as much of a customer base as possible in order to increase profitability. They will go to great lengths to obtain those consumers and increase profitability.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Candide by Voltaire Analysis

Candide by Voltaire Analysis According, to Candide by Voltaire, he describes the transformation of the protagonist Candide, throughout the story. Voltaire utilized satire, characterization, and techniques of exaggeration and contrast to represent Candides point of view in life. Basically the protagonist endures the human suffering to get his final destiny. Moreover Voltaire demonstrates the character development over the course starting with an innocent personality as a child who does not have responsibility to know into a great man. In the text the language shows Candides progress towards maturity. In the beginning of the novel the reader finds compact, colorful and crisp sentences as Candide, the hero rushes through life. Later Voltaire adopts a calm and reflective style analogous to Candides mental development. Also, the author disproves the overly optimistic philosophy that Candide and Pangloss represent. While the experiences of Candide and Pangloss conflict dramatically with this philosophy, both choose to maintain their beliefs in this regard. Candide to get his change goes through many adventures and gradually matures into an experienced and practical man. Some of his adventures were sad and some not. He was expulsed from the palace for his love to Cunegonde, but it help him to faces the cruelty of life with the philosophical view that all things in life are necessary for some greater good. Candide is a simple person who has not had much real life experience. He is banished from his home and unexpectedly introduced to the reality of the outside world. Throughout his travels he develops a new philosophy of life. His eyes open to reality, He sees that everything does not happen for the best as the philosophers and metaphysician Pangloss had told him in the Barons castle. In Europe as well as in America, he encounters misery. He meets a number of people from various walks of life. He comes across many philosophers ranging from extreme optimism of Pangloss to the pessimism of Martin. He experiences the love with Ms Cunegonde but it was not accept for their different social classes. One of some changes of Candide was his philosophy really optimistic mind everything is for the best.It was a phrase of his teacher Pangloss He taught that everything was for the best and Candide, having never heard any other philosophies, agrees blindly. While at sea, Candide sees a man who saved his life by nursing him back to health thrown overboard. Candide is ready to jump into the raging waters after his benefactor, but Pangloss stops him. He demonstrates that the Bay of Lisbon had been made for the Anabaptist to be drowned,(p.386) . This begins to clash with Candides ideologies: if this is the best of all worlds, how was this man who was so kind and generous thrown to his death and Candide not to save him? Candide begins to doubt in this philosophy. Candide eventually learns how to achieve happiness in the face of misadventure. He learns that in order to attain a state of contentment, one must be part of society where there is collective effort and work. Candide spends a great deal of time traveling the world and learning of many different idealogies in metaphysics. Finally, he decides to settle down and live by farming his own garden-this symbolizes his surrender to simple self-preservation. After a long and difficult struggle in which Candide is forced to overcome misfortune to find happiness, he concludes that everything is not as good as it seems the way Dr. Pangloss, his tutor had taught him. During his adventures he realize that things not always happen for the best, he understand that it just happen in his innocent mind. However, Candide always keep in his heart goodness amd love. Also, he knows that at the end, he is going to find the best for his life.We are destined , in the end , for another universe, no doubt that is the one where everything is well.(p.391).Also, Candide begins to experience human suffering in many different ways as love, loneliness and disasters. He understands that no matter who are you, always going to experiment the both sides happiness and sadness because is part of human life, Its true, and you see how people make mistakes who have not received a measure of education(p.402).Make mistakes is of humans and those mistakes make the experience, that later help us to take decisions. Furthermore, others important characters that contribute for Candides change are The Old Woman and Martin. Both of them help Candide to get more knowledge in outside world and contrast the Pangloss philosophy. The old woman, she was a suffered woman that had to survive of many obstacles. My last post was as servant to the Jew don Issachar; he attached me to your service, my lovely one; and I attached myself to your destiny, till I have become more concerned with your fate than with my own.(p.396).In the other hand Martin is a very pessimist man who had been experienced bad situations; he was really offended with life. It was another event that makes Candide changes his philosophy. In his amazing journey he finds that every event in the world has a reason, and whether there are positive or negative moments you have to live them. There is no effect without a cause, all events are linked by the chain of necessity and arranged for the best. I had to be driven away from Miss Cunegonde, I had to run the gauntlet, I have to beg my bread until I can earn it; none of this could have happened otherwise(P.381). However, by the end of the story the protagonist realized that to achieve happiness a lot of work, compromises, and sacrifices are necessary. Though life does not become any easier, at this point Candide begins to grow from a naive young person into a grown realist. Candide realizes he must take responsibility for his life. He must accept situations and try to change obstacles that may be hindrances. Candide learns that labor will eliminate the three curses of mankind: want, boredom, and vice. Candide realizes he must build his own life, however simple it may be. Voltaire says through Candides ultimate discovery that happiness in many ways depends on a persons attitude. When meeting a man that is happy with a simple garden to tend and a family to love, Candide realizes life does not have to be full of wealth in order to be happy. At the end he realizes that everything in life is not evil, especially when a person strives to make changes and not simply accept what comes their way. Voltaires philosophy expressed through Candides final realization is that We must cultivate our garden,(p.4380, which is the key to happiness. By cultivating our garden, Voltaire means that we must make the best of our situation in the present moment. We accept what we are given in life and work to make the best of it. It all has to do with our perspective on life. Candide finally realizes that he must try to make his own happiness even while battling hardships. Candides happiness is finally realized when he too becomes a man of simple means with a garden to tend and a loved one at his side.

Dubliners :: essays research papers

Dubliners is considered a champion among books written in the English language. James Joyce's characterization of not only the people in the stories, but of Dublin itself, demonstrates his great ability as an author. Dubliners is not a book with a normal story line, a plot, and a definite climax and resolution. Instead, it is more of a setting, an atmosphere, an "epiphany" as Joyce called it. To understand the book, it is recommendable to focus on Irish history, and more specifically, Charles Stewart Parnell. He is a figure alluded to in this and other books by Joyce. He has been referred to as the "uncrowned king of Ireland."The series of short stories included in Dubliners depict a broken morale in and around the city of Dublin. The early 1900's marked a time of disheartened spirits not only in Dublin but all of Ireland. England still clutched Ireland under it's own control.. The citizens were bitter and dismayed.It wasn't until 1922 that Ireland freed itself from England. Up until that time, Ireland was occupied and ruled from Britain. The occupation had begun hundreds of years before, but from the end of the 18th century, a distinct Irish nationalism began to evolve. From 1801 onwards, Ireland had no Parliament of it's own. It was ruled by the Parliament in Britain which consisted of the House of Commons and House of Lords.Meanwhile, in the 1840's, a small group formed out of the Young Ireland movement. The leader, Thomas Davis, expressed a concept of nationality embracing all who lived in Ireland regardless of creed or origin. A small insurrection in 1848 failed, but their ideas influenced the coming generations. This small nationalism was illustrated in the stories "Evelyn" and "A Painful Case." In the latter, Mr. James Duffy, despite his dislike of the "modern an pretentious" Dublin, decides to stay at least in the suburbs and commute back and forth to his house. Also in the story of "Eveline", we see her refusing to leave with her fiancà © because of her ties to her home and her city. She couldn't leave; she couldn't abandon it. The small or perhaps hidden pride in the city of Dublin displayed itself in subtle methods throughout the book. After the potato famine in Ireland, a group was founded in 1858 known as the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Also known as the Fenians, they formed a secret society which rejected constitutional attempts to gain independence.

Monday, August 19, 2019

International Institutions and Nuclear Proliferation: The Dependence on

The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) that took effect in 1968 was the landmark of international cooperation during the Cold War. As of 2015, there are 190 nations as parties to the treaty with four abstentions and one withdrawal. While the cooperative importance of this treaty cannot be understated, it is not the only International Institution that has a prominent place in the non-proliferation, disarmament and nuclear safety realm. The question isn’t whether these institutions are necessary in the international community, but how effective these Non-Governmental Organizations and institutions are in an international community dominated by sovereign nations. These institutions may have member states or they may be a transnational cooperative based on private/public funding and have obtained authority by its actions and/or the support of sovereign states. In order to argue the merits of this diverse range of NGOs and international institutio ns in nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and safety, I will look at the NPT and briefly at its custodial body, the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA), the EU Non-Proliferation Consortium and finally the IAEA, or the International Atomic Energy Agency. In order to judge the effectiveness of these organizations, I will analyze their mandate, their operational flexibility and their authority in certain cases, such as the ongoing Syrian Crisis, the nuclear situation in Iran, and finally recent pressures in the Middle East with regards to the NPT, namely the relationship between Israel and nearby Arab states. The NPT has been the called the most binding non-proliferation agreement in existence and has influenced all national and interna... ...-547. â€Å"About ISIS,† Institute for Science and International Security, accessed November 5, 2013, http://isis-online.org/about/. Patrick Migliorini et al., â€Å"Iranian Breakout Estimates, Updated September 2013,† Institute for Science and International Security, October 24, 2013, accessed November 5, 2013, http://isis-online.org/uploads/isis-reports/documents/Breakout_Study_Summary_24October2013.pdf: 1. Richard Engel and Robert Windrem, â€Å"Israel teams with terror group to kill Iran’s nuclear scientists, US officials tell NBC News,† NBC News, accessed November 4, 2013, http://rockcenter.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/02/09/10354553-israel-teams-with-terror-group-to-kill-irans-nuclear-scientists-us-officials-tell-nbc-news. Ian Johnstone, â€Å"US-UN Relations after Iraq: The End of the World (Order) As We Know It?† European Journal of International Law, 15(4) (2004): 814.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Juliet’s Transformation in Romeo and Juliet Essay -- Free Romeo and Ju

From â€Å"the fatal loins† (Prologue.5) of Lord and Lady Capulet, protagonist Juliet is born in Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet. Early on in the play Juliet is portrayed as a very dutiful daughter to her family. After her encounter with Romeo however, she begins a rapid transformation from a naive young girl into a woman. By the end of the play Juliet’s transformation evolves her from a dutiful daughter, into a faithful wife that is willing to desert her family in the name of love. The audience is first introduced to Juliet in the exposition of the play. Juliet attracts the attention the Count Paris and her father (Lord Capulet) wisely says that Juliet â€Å"is yet a stranger in the world† (Act I.2.8) and should be allowed â€Å"two more summers† (Act I.2.10) to grow until she is ready for marriage. This implies that Juliet is young and has not yet matured to level where she is eligible to be married. Lord Capulet’s love for his daughter leads him to protect her from the prospective marriage until she is â€Å"ripe to be a bride† (Act I.2.11). The audience’s first impression of Juliet however, is through her interaction with her mother (Lady Capulet) and the Nurse. From the Nurse’s remarks, the audience learns that Juliet is thirteen and â€Å"Come Lammas-eve at night shall [Juliet turn] fourteen† (Act I.3.18-9). As Juliet enters the presence of her mother and the Nurse, Shakespeare portrays Juliet as a very faithful daughter. When summoned by the Nurse, Juliet comes promptly then responds politely to her mother â€Å"Madam, I am here, what is your will?† (Act I.3.7). When Juliet refers to her mother as ‘madam† (Act I.3.7), the audience also gets the impression of Juliet being compliant to her elder’s wishes. This can be observed when her mothe... ... Juliet bringing news for Juliet to â€Å"hie you hence to Frair Laurences’ cell; there stays a husband [Romeo] to make you a wife† (Act II.5.73-74), Juliet is ecstatic. This portrays Juliet as being disobedient because while she accepted Romeo’s proposal, her family has already arranged a marriage between Juliet and Paris. Juliet’s disobedience continues until her death in scene five when Romeo’s dagger finds â€Å"thy sheath† (Act V.3.170) in Juliet’s body. The significance of Juliet’s change in character is to show her accelerated transformation from a young girl into a mature woman. In the beginning of the play Juliet is unable to make her own decisions. However after her meeting with Romeo, Juliet becomes more assertive and defends her love for Romeo. In conclusion, individuals cannot be forced to love; love is nurtured and nourished but also is always put to test.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Sultry Days by Shobha de

SULTRY DAYS : A Tale of Struggle and Freedom Sultry Days is the fifth novel written by Shobha De published in the year 1994. With Sultry Days Shobha De has explored a different approach in her characters which had not been seen in her previous novels. Shobha writes in the front page of this novel; ‘For my children†¦ finally a book by me that they can read. ‘ L. Sonia Ningthoujam writes; ‘Sultry Days, takes us into the world of power, sex and guns, the shady side of Mumbai upper class society. [1] In this novel Shobha has realistically presented the lives of youth, their aspirations their attitudes, she mentions in her autobiography; ‘ The novel is littered with types from that mixed-up decade-the self-styled bohemians out to change the world but not their smelly underwear; the dirty old men of Mumbai, all gas and small turds; the corporate ladies with their ‘good life' hangs-ups; the intellectuals, pariahs and parasites who feed off the rich while s pitting on their ‘capitalist values'. It was a fun book to do.And for those of us who grew up in that era in Mumbai, there were a lot of familiar echoes and reference points that provided loads of amusement during the recounting. I consider ‘God' one of my better-etched characters†¦ I can only regret he wasn't for real. ‘ [2] Shobha De dazzles the reader with her frank and candid tales of the lives of males and females who are trying to carve a successful career in the field of literature and journalism in the city of Mumbai. Because of her own journalistic stint in Mumbai Shobha's Sultry Days emerges as a very realistic novel.Shobha says, ‘I rather liked doing this book with its simple tale of doomed love, simply because it took me back to my college days and to the edges of the pseudo-arty intellectual world I flirted with briefly before beating a hasty retreat. ‘ [3] The protagonist in this novel is also a female like other novels of Shobha De, but unlike her other novels Sultry Days also revolves around a male character. Nisha, the protagonist of the novel is a strong headed and career oriented female although the novel also deals very realistically with a male character who also becomes the central character as the novel unfolds.God or Deb is the central male character and Nisha is the narrator. It is through Deb that Nisha discovers herself. Nisha is a young college student who is sharp and focused towards studies, she comes from an upper middle class family. Nisha's parents do not have a very loving relationship. She always feels tense that father has no time for her mother and neglects his daughter. Nisha is a shy girl and she always hated the frown birthmark on her forehead which made her look tensed all the time. ‘ Was it my expression? Did I look troubled? In pain? Depressed? Maybe it was that birthmark of mine.It had to be that. I was born with worry lines between my brows. ‘ [4]——  page 2 Nisha thought that she may appear to Deb as a, ‘A prissy little good girl who carried far too may books around. Pretty enough, I suppose. But not special. ‘ [5]— page 2 From the beginning we become aware of Nisha's attraction for Deb who is also referred to as God by most of his college friends. Deb is the son of a communist and is also a communist himself, he often gets arrested while taking out Morchas. Nisha gets attracted to Deb because of his unusual personality.His appearance is shabby, wears days' old stubble, always scratches his ‘matted locks which were full of lice-nests,' smokes ‘beedies,' is a man of loose morals, ‘has had several girls by the time he reached college'. His attitude towards girls is also to – ‘use them and leave them. ‘ ‘ I learnt very quickly that I had to bury whatever little ego and pride I had if I wished to hang around God. His attitude towards girls was simple-use them and leave them†¦ As for me, I was plain moonstruck. And for once in my life I wasn't going to lose out by default. ‘ [6]— page 5Despite his shabby appearance, ‘God's hands and fingernails were surprisingly, neat and clean. ‘ He knows many languages such as German, French and Spanish. He had already read Chaucer and Karl Marx before leaving school. Deb fails to tolerate exploitation and hence revolts against injustice, tyranny and frivolities. In the beginning of the novel Deb asserts the importance of decent means and told Nisha that he was not interested in money as it is only ‘means to an end. ‘ Nisha is very impressed with his manners. Nisha is truly in love with Deb and tries hard to work their relationship.Deb however, is not very emotionally attached to Nisha or at least he pretends so. He mainly lives off Nisha's money. Nisha tells; ‘I loved buying things for God. It gave me a sense of belonging. Gifts were a bond-perhaps the only one. Gi fts-which he took entirely for granted. ‘ [7]— page 13 Nisha's parents disapproved of God as they felt that God is using their daughter for his own profit. But Nisha is totally smitten by Deb and tells them, ‘I'd like Deb to ruin my life. I want him to ruin it. I don't care if he wrecks it. I love him. [8]——– page 14 Nisha is very possessive about her mother and when Deb passes some nasty comments on her mother, Nisha screams at him in a fit of anger, ‘Oh, shut up! How dare you? ‘ I screamed, ‘You and your filthy mind. What would you know about the needs of ladies-you who have no background, no class, you filthy bastard. ‘ [9]– page 17 Nisha's father is a typical hypocrite husband. At home he had set rules for his wife and daughter to follow. He expected his wife to be dolled up in office parties according to his tastes. His wife had no choice.Nisha tells, ‘ My father's ideas of a well-dressed wife were pre tty fixed-she had to be draped in pastel-coloured chiffon worn with a sleeveless blouse†¦ Make-up, especially lipstick, was of vital importance since he firmly believed it was a sign of sophistication and no stylish woman should ever be seen without it. ‘ [10]— page 19 He expected his wife to look after the house and accompany him for occasional parties. She was never encouraged to do something worthwhile outside home. When Nisha's mother told her friends that she had no time for her personal interests her friend tells her; ‘That is your problem.But if I were in your place, I would just tell him that if he'd wanted to marry an ayah, he shouldn't have married you. We bring a lot of status to our husband and they should realize it. ‘ [11]—-page 24 Nisha's father did not approve of women going out of home for work. When Nisha's mother got an offer for work from her friend Pratimaben her husband denied it straightaway by saying; ‘In our company wives do not work†¦. They stay at home and organize dinner parties' [12]— page 147 For a large number of years after their marriage Nisha's mother use to give up without a fight with her husband.But when the artificial behavior of her husband started taking toll on her senses she told her husband in a fit of anger; ‘I have had enough of your bullying and hypocrisy. I have kept quiet for far too long. Go to hell with your corporate nonsense†¦. Why should you I? Why should I bother about you either? You can also go to hell with your pompous talk and empty boasts. I am sick, do you hear, sick of living this false life†¦ Well-it's my turn now. And you can listen to me for a change. I will go along with Pratimaben with anything I choose to do. She is my friend.She encourages me. She appreciates me†¦ Whether you like it or not, henceforth I will make the decisions about my life. And the first thing is that I'm taking a job. ‘ [13]——â⠂¬â€œ page 148 Shobha De satirizes the hypocritical couples who have extramarital relations and yet pretend to be faithful to each other. Deb broke the news to Nisha that her father is having an affair with a Sindhi woman. Even Nisha's mother confirms that her father has broken all ties with her. Inspite of their differences Nisha's parents throw an anniversary party for their friends.Nisha was tensed seeing all this and admits; ‘As for me, I was drwn into my mother's sad world, full of self-pity and doubt. I didn't know what to make of the bomb she ad dropped. My father continued to be ‘normal' and pretended nothing had happened. ‘ [14]——page 62 In this novel Shobha De throws light on the hollow life of film and modeling world. Deb gets no pocket money from his father, he does free lance reporting as well as proof-reading. After college Nisha joined an ad agency and she became a little busy in her life. Whenever she had time she met God and enjoyed h is company.As God became conscious of his creative powers, he started writing poems. Nisha felt delighted seeing God moving in the league of contemporary poets. God is also very proud of his poetic sensibilities. God started attending workshops in which amateur poets gathered and showcased their work. Shobha De gives a very realistic picture of this strata of upcoming talent. She refers to such workshops as; ‘The sessions were conducted I dingy halls where the organizers didn't have to pay any rent. Everybody sat around on uncomfortable folding chairs or on the floor†¦Others who were present regularly were a fairly motley lot of struggling writers, a Grande Dame of Verse, frustrated copy-writers and self-styled critics. ‘[15] – page 26 Nisha never felt at ease in the meetings of Anglo Indian Poets Association. There were some aspiring women members also in the group. Women like Chandni, Sujata, Pramila etc wanted to get name and fame in the field of journalis m. These women wanted to get away from the clutches of domesticity and wanted to breathe in the fresh air. One such character is that of Sujata. Sujata was also a member of God's poetry recitation group.She represents modern women who fulfills all her homely duties and also doesn't forget her own interests. Shobha writes; ‘All of them-her timid husband and four daughters, doted on her. However, she had made it plain that she had gone beyond them and that she'd stopped playing wife and mother long ago. ‘ After fulfilling her duties as a wife and mother, Sujata decided to live her life on her own terms. She told her family ; ‘ My duties are over. They are on their own now,' she would explain. ‘I have played the roles I was expected to at the appropriate times. Now†¦I'm on my own. And they are on their own. This is my life. I want to live it my way. ‘ [16]—- Page 31 God appreciated Sujata's behaviour, he tells Nisha; ‘What's wrong with h er behaviour? She is beautiful, man, just beautiful. She follows her instincts. She makes her own rules. She's not a coward. She cares two hoots for the so-called â€Å"society†. I admire her guts, yaar. ‘ [17]—page 31 Ultimately, God joined Plume magazine as sub-editor and felt delighted. The basic aim of Plume was to encourage young poets.Shobha de has very realistically portrayed women's protest against the prevalent system which limits the scope of a woman's life to mere day to day household chores. In this novel women like Sujata and Pratimaben do not accept their traditional roles in marriage. They detest being limited to the domestic chores. Extremely conscious of their changed role in family, they proclaim loudly, ‘We are not only housekeepers after all, ‘We are not mere housekeepers, after all. ‘ [18]—page 24 Some women are career conscious to the extent that they do not think in terms of a settled family.Manju, Vimla are the pro fessionals in marketing field and are career oriented females. They represent the ‘new age' females writes Shobha De; ‘ These were the no-nonsense women who had ‘take me seriously' written all over them†¦.. They took their jobs with an earnestness that was almost terrifying in its intensity. Even the married ones insisted on being addressed as ‘Ms' or stuck to their maiden names. Their male colleagues were not permitted to crack jokes or flirt lightly. ‘ She writes further, â€Å"Workaholism for women had become very fashionable. If men can pursue careers ruthlessly, so can we, women declared at seminars and workshops for senior managers†¦.. ‘ Postpone babies or ask your husband to share house work. ‘† [19]———–page 119 These characters in Sultry Days have an altogether different outlook towards family and social life. In this context, De's feminist concerns in her fiction come close to the ideas e xpressed by Veena Noble Dass, ‘Literature should show women in activities that are not traditionally ‘feminine' to speed the dissolution of rigid sex roles.It is not enough, however to simply place a female character in a new occupation, with no corresponding change in her personality and behaviour. ‘ [20] The modern woman aspire to exercise power and control the situation. Feroze and Kiki also fall in the category of the New Woman of the new era. Regarding Feroze Shobha De remarks; ‘Feroze was on her own in more ways than one. Enterprising manipulative and full of strange kind of charm, she got around to places most people only dreamt of†¦Feroze became a familiar and popular figure in filmdom in an incredibly short period†¦ She drove her own car-she smoked foreign cigarettes. She traveled by planes. ‘ [21]——page 150 Nisha met Anil Bhandari, a young marketing guy who'd just set up a hot-shop of his own after coming back from a l ong stint in America with one of the best marketing agencies. Anil was in his early thirties and mockingly referred to himself as a ‘first generation yuppie'. [22] —page 76 He was a fine example of a modern educated young man with refined international tastes.He smelt of Aramisor Drakkar and used Studio Line gel in his hair, wore Warren Beatty glasses. Soon Anil was going around with a supermodel model Shona. Shona and Anil perfectly complemented each other. Once they were engaged Anil emerged as a typical male from a hypocrite society. He told Nisha; ‘ In fact, I'm going to ask Shona to give up modelling once we're married. She won't need the money anyway. ‘ Nisha asked him; ‘Maybe there's more than money in it for her. Maybe she loves her career. She is right at the top now. Have you discussed it with her? ‘ ‘Not yet. I'm sure she'll agree. She's such an innocent docile girl. ‘ Anil said. What will she do with her time? ‘ Nish a asked him. Anil replied and asked Nisha; ‘What does any housewife do? There's so much to do around the house. ‘ [23] — page 109 As the novel progresses we see visible change in God's attitude. From a small time poem writer and proofreader Deb starts working for an art magazine Plume. Having tasted power and money during his association with Plume, God's sole interest is to acquire money and power. Although Nisha does not approve of God's new way of life. She explains her utter repulsiveness to God's new style of living which had begun sowing the seeds of discord and estrangement between them.She says; ‘No I didn't like what was happening to God at all. We were beginning to see less and less of each other now that he didn't need to touch me for cash that often†¦ God was behaving like a mortal, like all the other journalists in the town, a bum who shamelessly sold his pieces for a fews pegs of scotch and a five-star evening' [24] – page 100 Nisha always looked for a loyal partner in Deb which Deb ceased to be, not because of his alliance with other women but because of their varied interests. Deb and Nisha's relationship turned cold after the former starts caring less and less for his self-respect.He turned out to be a typical man from a male dominated society. Deb has moved to his own place and required somebody to cook for him and look after his house. Nisha suggested him to get a maid. Deb very casually told her; ‘These maids-shaids are a hassle, yaar. I need my own woman. If you want, I don't mind a shaadi-waadi-I know that will make you feel better. Theek hai-we can be burgeois and go through with that marriage rubbish. You can cook, can't you?†¦ Can you fry puris without burning your fingers? Can you make rice that isn't sticky?†¦ Better to get all this straight from the start, hai na?No lafda later on†¦ Give me my daal-roti, a warm bed, twice-a-week maalish and a daily screw. That's all I expect. ‘ Nisha was too stunned to respond to what she heard; ‘One part of me was laughing. The other, feeling sorry for this man. He was obviously deranged-or the world's biggest egotist. He actually expected me to jump at this offer. He looked so comic. So vulnerable, standing in the lobby, trying to look nonchalant and heroic. ‘ [25]—- page 160 God's sole interest in life was reduced to acquire money and power. Contrary to his attitude Nisha wants everything in life through sheer labor.Nisha had never expected this change in God and she failed to convince him as to he did not need to work for a political broker, he needed to trust the power of his pen, but all her efforts went in vain. As ill luck would have it, Deb became proud of his power and joins Yashwantbhai, a don. God's new life style began to sow seeds of discord and estrangement between them. Nisha realizes that God was no longer the same person she had fallen in love with. Nisha tried her best to refr ain Deb from associating with a criminal like Yashwantbhai but Deb had gone too far to come back.Nisha started exposing Yashwantbhai and his underworld connections in her write-ups. Nisha's bold action is supported by her mother and also by a social activist Pratimaben who unravels and brings to public notice Yashwantbahi's atrocities on his former mistress, Pramila. Pramila is a fine example of a new age woman. Pramila is a Nagpur woman, her husband is in a well paid job, they have three children. Pramila is a talented poetry writer and to pursue her career in writing she leaves her family and moves to Mumbai. She shots to fame as soon as her poems are published in English.She administers a shock to her husband when she divorces him and leaves the house along with her two daughters. She eventually meets Yashwantbhai and becomes her mistress. She becomes avictim of his lust. She becomes pregnant with his child, Yashwantbhai forces her to get a sex check done for the unborn baby as h e did not want a girl child. Knowing that the child is a girl Yashwantbhai abuses her and then it is God who helps her in going underground. Nisha, her mother, Pratimaben with Pramila's help expose Yashwant bhai.Ultimately, Deb has to pay for his association with Yashwant bhai, he is shot by Yashwantbhai's goons and God collapses after struggling for a couple of days in hospital. When Dev is shot and admitted in the hospital, Nisha analyzes the life of ignorant and uneducated women of Bombay who never think of higher issues of life such as- What are the fundamental rights of a citizen? What is the interpretation of women liberation movement? What is secularism? Will women be free from the drudgery of the kitchen? What is the meaning of democratic socialism? Is socialism going to help women in any way?What is the importance of L. I. C in the life of a family? Nisha thinks very realistically that these ignorant and simple-hearted women are not shot dead as they don't raise their voice against the underworld Dons. No threats are given to them as they don't interfere with the working of politicians. But the women in Shobha De's novels are strong and confident. These women know what they want from life and how to achieve it. Nisha's mother followed her husband's instructions through out her life but finally she raised her voice against his hypocrite nature and emerged a winner.Women in Sultry Days assert their free and autonomous existence, they struggle and fight against the established social order that threatens their existence. Bhaskar A Shukla observes; ‘It may be partly on account of her experience as a journalist that she is able to tell things interestingly and with a courage of conviction in a language uniquely her own. ‘ [26] Women in Sultry Days represent a modern, self-sufficient and financial independent woman. These women do not expect their male partners to provide them financial security.In fact, it is Nisha grants monetary favors to her boyfriend Deb for a long time. Sujata, Pramila, Pratimaben are women who do not wish to be enclosed in their homes, they wish to be free from the clutches of male dominated society. They show the courage to leave their houses and pursue their dreams and make a mark of their own. Binod Mishra remarks; ‘In De's novels women's desperate struggle for existence unfolds in their unconventional behaviour, their sexual escapades and their dream for a life free from male domination. ‘ [27] BIBLIOGRAPHY Sonia Ningthoujam, Image of the New Woman in the Novels of Shobha De. 2Shobha De, Selective Memory:Stories From My Life, page 336 3Shobha De, Selective Memory:Stories From My Life, page 336 4Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 2 5Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 2 6Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 5 7Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 13 8Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 14 9Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 17 10Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 19 11Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 24 12Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 1 47 13Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 148 14Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 62 5Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 26 16Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 31 17Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 31 18Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 24 19Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 119 20Veena Noble Dass, ed. , â€Å"Feminism and Literature†, Feminism and Literature (Delhi : Prestige Books, 1995), page 10 21 Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 150 22 Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 76 23 Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 109 24 Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 100 25 Shobha De, Sultry Days, page 160 26Bhaskar A Shukla, Shobha de : The Writer and Feminism, page 114 27 Binod Mishra, Critical Responses to Feminism

Friday, August 16, 2019

Ethical Issues in Human Cloning Essay

In the modern society, cloning has been described as the man-made, genetic duplicate of another living form (United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2005). Cloning of mammals has been a far-fetched idea to some scientists for a very long time. However, in 1997, Dr. Ian Wilmut, along with his team, successfully cloned a lamb from a mature ewe (Kass & Wilson, 1998). This announcement has caused a lot of positive and negative responses from medical and non-medical communities. Protests from religious groups, bioethicists, humanitarians, and the general public led former President Clinton, the United States president of that time, to form the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) (Campbell, 1997). This committee then published a report and concluded that human cloning was morally unacceptable. It was then that government funds have been forbidden to be provided for human cloning research, making it illegal (Kass & Wilson, 1998). Critics of human cloning dispute that human cloning provides a number of medical risks that may harm the clone and the progenitor (Huang, 2001). Ninety percent of failure rate and high mortality rates in animal cloning have been reported. Dolly, the first lamb clone, was euthanized for developing old-age diseases despite her young age (Kass & Wilson, 1998). To create one successful clone, a huge number of unsuccessful embryos also have to be sacrificed. This concept has resulted in outrage among the critics of cloning for killing innocent clones for the benefit of one (Kuppuswamy, Macer, Serbulea, & Tobin, 2007). Apart from the medical risks of cloning, human reproductive cloning may also weaken the concept of kin and human reproduction (Kass & Wilson, 1998). A successfully cloned child would also have to face psychological problems such as personal identity and individuality. Designer babies and human enhancements will also be provided by reproductive cloning. Babies with perfect features and desirable characteristics will be available to high class societies because of the high-priced value of making them. Low class societies, on the other hand, will not be able to afford these babies, thereby creating a new form of discrimination that would further increase the gap between the rich and poor (Piercy, 1999). With human enhancements available, diseased and disabled people could be categorized as the â€Å"undesirables. † This implies that the lives of such persons are not worth living (Quick, n. d. ). In the society today, life is promoted and extended as much as possible. Discrimination is frowned upon and despised by all. Such ethical issues and many more are still being argued because of human reproductive cloning. Until these ethical issues are resolved, human cloning will still be morally unacceptable in the society. References Campbell, C. (1997). Cloning human beings: Religious perspective on human cloning. Retrieved from http://bioethics. georgetown. edu/nbac/pubs/cloning2/cc4. pdf. Huang, N. (2001). The ethics of human genetic cloning. MURJ, 4, 69–75. Retrieved from http://web. mit. edu/murj/www/v04/v04-Features/v04-f6. pdf. Kass, L. , & Wilson, J. (1998). The ethics of human cloning. Washington, CD: AEI Press. Kuppuswamy, C. , Macer, D. , Serbulea, M. , & Tobin, B. (2007). Is human reproductive cloning inevitable: Future options for UN governance. Yokohama, Japan: United Nations University – Institute of Advanced Studies. Retrieved from http://www. ias. unu. edu/resource_centre/Cloning_9. 20B. pdf. Piercy, E. (1999, December). Human cloning scientific, ethical and regulatory considerations relevant to cloning of human beings. Retrieved from http://www. aph. gov. au/house/committee/laca/humancloning/sub240. pdf. Quick, S. (n. d. ). Stem cell research and cloning—Science and ethics (Rev. ed). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from www. ethicalhealthcare. org/articles/quick_scr_cloning_ethics. pdf.